The International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) is the world governing body for the shooting sport often also known as dynamic shooting or action shooting and involves the process of scoring the most points in the shortest possible time. To succeed in the sport, a shooter must combine speed, power and precision. A minimum time could also be set to complete the course with each section divided into stages. Points are deducted for inaccurate shooting. There are no set specifics on how a course should be designed, but the main objective is to test the inventive skills of the shooter. The standard requirements involve moving and shooting from several different positions, but the exercises will vary between courses.
The origins of practical shooting lie with private individuals who wanted to experiment combinations of hunting and self-defense. These researchers also included personnel from the military and law enforcement. The research was independently conducted and without sanction, but the findings proved to be very valuable for future police and military training methods. After the Second World War, a form of shooting known as stridsskyting became popular in Norway. This has now been replaced by a more popular type of pistol shooting known as field shooting. Handgun competitions emerged in the USA during the early parts of the 1950s, but the sport needed professional regulation.
With the formation of IPSC in 1976, this now became possible. The first World Shoot was held in Zurich two years before the formation of the confederation, with American Ray Chapman becoming the first world class practical pistol champion. Some of the key functions of IPSC are to approve firearms and equipment, ensure matches are conducted safely, train range officials, and administer competition rules. The main competitions overseen by IPSC are the Handgun World Shoot, Rifle World Shoot and Shotgun World Shoot.